As Berge noted in referring to bottles, the ” This bottle dating “key” is a relatively simple “first cut” on the dating of a bottle. Please be aware that in order to gain the maximum information about any particular bottle e. Unfortunately, the complexities of precisely dating bottles is beyond the scope of any simple key. A substantial amount of bottle type specific information must be reviewed by a user to increase the probability of dating accuracy. Additional reference materials outside of this website must often be consulted to narrow down the date of any item as far as is possible and to really get a “feel” for the history of the bottle in question. The information on this website will, however, usually produce a reliable manufacturing date range for a majority of American utilitarian bottles manufactured from the early s to the mid th century. For the first time user of this site it is highly recommended that the following information be read prior to using the key below. First this cautionary note:
Mouth Blown Dating
Mouth-blown Bottle Dating Mouth-blown utilitarian bottles have several important diagnostic characteristics which can be helpful for dating. The primary features common to most mouth-blown bottles are addressed by Questions 4 through 7 which are listed below. Click the question link to jump directly to that question though it is highly recommended that users run through questions 4 through 7 consecutively since the answers for some lead directly to other questions: Does the base of the bottle have some type of pontil scar or mark?
Does the bottle finish “lip” have an applied finish, tooled finish, or a finish that does not fit either of these categories or you do not know? Does the bottle have some type of mold seam or seams within the extreme outside edges of the base?
Edit Article How to Make Glass. In this Article: Article Summary Using a Furnace or Kiln Using a Charcoal Barbecue Community Q&A Making glass is a very ancient process, with archaeological evidence of glass making dating back to before BC. Once a rare and prized art, manufacturing glass has become a common industry.
Thank you very much!! S on the base of bottles …………………. Thanks to Mark Newton for this info. Many such bottles with an initial on the base were purposely made with no glass manufacturer identification. Mark is seen mostly on the lower heel area on soda and beer bottles. The number usually precedes the letter, but in some cases the order may be reversed.
These marks were used by ABCO at least during the period, and evidence from bottle collectors indicate these date code markings may have been used as early as when American Bottle Company was incorporated , all the way up to at least in some cases. S in a circle………………. Swindell Bros, Baltimore, Maryland Reportedly used on machine-made bottles after c. Hand-blown bottles were produced from to , at which time semi-automatic production was introduced.
Also, see next 2 entries.
Is glass liquid or solid
Each of the pictured bottles has a relatively short description and explanation including estimated dates or date ranges for that type bottle and links to other view pictures of the bottle. Additional links to images of similar bottles are also frequently included. The array of references used to support the conclusions and estimates found here – including the listed dating ranges – are noted.
Additional information and estimates are based on the empirical observations of the author over 50 years of experience; this is often but not always noted. Various terminology is used in the descriptions that may be unfamiliar if you have not studied other pages on this site.
Hi! My name is David Whitten. I’m interested in the general history of the glass manufacturing industry in the United States, especially within the sphere of container glass, electrical insulators and tableware (both pressed and blown).
Many would say that Blown Glass Bottles are the most valuable of all bottles because of their historical significance and age. Early examples are rare. You are not likely for run into one at a yard sale. Collectors have been searching for these since the early s. Most of the surviving examples were made from These terms are often used loosely and buyers who are not experts in a given type of glass should be wary.
Many reproductions of early blown bottles can be found. Mexican reproductions have been around for more than fifty years and can easily fool a buyer. But many bottles were produced in this early stage of American Glass History Characteristics of these early bottles include a lack of embossing but they may have raised patterns. Many were blown without the use of molds.
What is American Brilliant Cut Glass
My name is David Whitten. Where was it made? What was the name of the company or factory where it was produced? How old is it? Was it mass-produced by machine methods? What type of glass is it made of?
Glass was hand made until fairly recently, and up until the midth century was hand blown using a pontil iron. A pontil iron was a thin iron bar that was attached to the foot or base of the vessel as it was being worked by the chair (the chair being the team of glassmakers who worked together to .
Identifying any antique glass is simple. First, see if the glass is marked, finding a mark is the first thing to look for when buying ANY antique, period. Many times the mark may be very faint, so use the reflection of the light you are using to aid you. If you’ve found a mark, great! You can find the company who made the glass by using a glassmaker marks book.
Or use an internet search engine to look up the mark. I recommend looking the mark up in a book, it is easier and faster but the internet is a good alternative if you don’t have glass identification books laying around. If you have found a mark of some sort, whether it be a signature, symbol, or trademark just remember: Here is an example: You have found a handled sugar that has the letter “C” inside a diamond shape on the bottom.
You type “glass mark C in diamond” without quotes with this particular mark, which is the Cambridge Glass Company’s mark, you have found what you need and are satisfied, but finding a mark is not always that simple.
How to Make Glass (with Pictures)
The requirements for making a good mirror are a surface with a very high degree of flatness preferably but not necessarily with high reflectivity , and a surface roughness smaller than the wavelength of the light. The earliest manufactured mirrors were pieces of polished stone such as obsidian , a naturally occurring volcanic glass. Examples of obsidian mirrors found in Anatolia modern-day Turkey have been dated to around B.
Outstanding Hadeland hand blown art glass vase designed and made by Jon Jutrem. Clear glass with cuts on sides. Beautiful ring when you tap the vase. Please notice that the vase is clear and any co Hadeland Norway Clear Crystal Orn Eagle # 87mm /2″ tall Handmade w/box.
Lips Beginning collectors often wonder how to tell the age of a particular bottle. One of the most important clues to the age of a bottle is the style of the lip. In the picture below are shown a number of lip styles common during the last century. Lips of Nineteenth Century Bottles All of the above lips were applied to the neck of the bottle after it was removed from the mold.
A hot piece of glass was applied to the neck and then hand tooled to the proper shape. The lips of bottles made before were often crudely applied and careful examination shows these irregularities. Sometime around it became common practice to tool the lips with a lipping tool, an object which fit one piece into the opening of the neck while two other pieces clamped on the outside of the applied band of glass. Then with a twisting motion, the top was uniformly shaped.
Original by Philip Gibbs October , with thanks to many who contributed their knowledge and references. Is glass liquid or solid? It is sometimes said that glass in very old churches is thicker at the bottom than at the top because glass is a liquid, and so over several centuries it has flowed towards the bottom. This is not true.
In Mediaeval times panes of glass were often made by the Crown glass process.
How to Date Antique Glass Bottles By John Peterson ; products, made more precise dating possible. In addition to technology, products and manufacturers, certain types of glass colors will also aid in dating. Pre Bottles. Examine the bottle’s symmetry. Asymmetry is an indication of a hand-blown bottle. Look for mold seams. The.
History[ edit ] After the War of , American glass manufacturers began using molds as an inexpensive way to produce glassware similar in appearance to the very costly cut glass that was imported from Waterford, Ireland. Although no intact molds have been found, fragments of molds have been excavated at glass manufacturing sites in Sandwich, Massachusetts and Kent and Mantua, Ohio. It was made of hinged sections that could be opened and closed by means of a foot or hand operated treadle.
One of the vertical walls of the mold was permanently fastened to the base and the other walls were attached to it by removable pins. Designs were cut into the inside walls of all mold parts. Some molds impressed a pattern on the object and base, while others omitted the base. Most molds were in three parts, but could also be constructed of two or four parts. Regardless of the number of parts of a mold, all objects produced in a mold are called three-mold glass.
After removal from the mold, the glass was expanded by means of additional blowing. In New England, pieces were often finished with threaded lips. Handles were also added after removal from the mold. Marlboro Street Factory in Keene, NH manufactured dark green and amber bottle glass and was known for the manufacture of inkwells. It is believed that glass factories in Pittsburgh , Philadelphia and Baltimore also produced three-mold glassware, but since excavation is not possible, no proof exists.
Principles[ edit ] As a novel glass forming technique created in the middle of the 1st century BC , glassblowing exploited a working property of glass that was previously unknown to glassworkers; inflation, which is the expansion of a molten blob of glass by introducing a small amount of air to it. That is based on the liquid structure of glass where the atoms are held together by strong chemical bonds in a disordered and random network,    therefore molten glass is viscous enough to be blown and gradually hardens as it loses heat.
With reference to their studies of the ancient glass assemblages from Sepphoris of Israel, Fischer and McCray  postulated that the concentration of natron , which acts as flux in glass, is slightly lower in blown vessels than those manufactured by casting. Lower concentration of natron would have allowed the glass to be stiffer for blowing. During blowing, thinner layers of glass cool faster than thicker ones and become more viscous than the thicker layers.
That allows production of blown glass with uniform thickness instead of causing blow-through of the thinned layers.
Midwestern Blown Glass. These early bottles blown in the era are typical of Ohio and Western Pennsylvania style blown bottles. The most desirable specimens are called Swirls (left) or Club (right) bottles and have a pattern in the glass of swirled ribs.
Sociopathic tendencies or full-blown sociopath? What does it mean to say that someone has sociopathic tendencies, versus full-blown sociopathy, and does the difference even matter? The simple answer is that someone with sociopathic tendencies will exhibit sociopathic behaviors and attitudes sometimes, while elsewhere he may seem to possess and, in fact, may possess a somewhat genuine if limited and unreliable capacity and desire to respect others.
In my experience, to identify that you are involved with a partial versus full-blown sociopath is not grounds for optimism. He is no less treatable or curable for the comparatively inconstant expression of his sociopathy. In some respects it may be more disconcerting to be involved with a partial sociopath than a full-blown one. I want to stress this very carefully: There is the strangest, most jarring mix of humanity in her personality, a capacity for generosity, yet alternating with a historical pattern of cunning, lying behaviors and a chilling capacity to comfortably disown remarkable abdications of responsibility.
GLASS MANUFACTURERS’ MARKS ON BOTTLES Page 5GLASS BOTTLE MARKS
Wright Stacy 5 Small, but stylish and practical element of decor. This wine glass is a hand blown crystal glass element that is resistant to wear or damage. It also looks very attractive in dining rooms among other dining accessories. AlyssaCole 5 Make your parties more colorful with this elegant set of wine glasses. Each of those cuties is designed of hand-blown clear glass, perfect as glassware for events like birthdays and anniversaries, and as a stylish home decoration.
Rachel Gon Hand Blown Glassware:
Note: All turn/paste mold, free-blown, and dip molded bottles are also mouth-blown or hand made bottles, which is covered more on the Mouth-blown bottle dating page (link below). Click Mouth-blown Bottles to move to the portion of the Dating key for Mouth-blown bottles.
What can be worse than depriving yourself of good food and good company? A couple that grows fat together, stays together. These are places you should visit at least once in your lifetime. It is loved by taxi drivers looking to curb their hunger pangs in the middle of the night. The queue may be long but it clears fast. Vegetarian Stall Coffee Express For guilt-free indulgence at midnight, head on down to chow on their kway chap that swims in a flavourful herbal broth.
Order their crispy fried dumplings to go along with your hearty kway chap and the accompanying braised mock meats, taupok and taukwa. It is recommended that you order you tiao fried dough fritters , to dunk into the piping hot soup for added flavour. Also, you have the option of switching up your bowl of white rice to mee sua, an interesting twist to this traditional Chinese dish.
Tuesday — Sunday 7am — 3pm 6pm — 4am, Closed on Mondays Swee Choon Tim Sum Restaurant Must-try items include liu sha bao, beancurd skin with prawns, chee cheong fun, chicken wings, mee sua kueh, Shanghai XLB, and yam paste with pumpkin and ginkgo nut. Must-try items include prawn rice roll, chee cheong fun, porridge, king-sized siew mai, mini pork belly bun, char siew bao, har gow and deep fried soft-shell crab. If you still can tank more food after all that dim sum, order their mouth-watering Thai-style fried crab dong fen.
The picture below at the left shows an iron pontil on the base jof a historical flask circa The middle picture shows an open pontil on the base of a cylindrical medicine bottle. The third picture shows the base of a milk bottle from just after the trun of the century. The disk-like mark is sometimes confused with a pontil.
DATING BOTTLES BY THEIR TOPS AND BASES. A Look at Bottle Bases. One approach to helping beginner identify their old bottles involves show them the bases of old bottles.
Dating Antique Bottles Many people are intrigued to know how old their bottle is. There are three keys to help with dating most bottles: Or the bottle may have a nice even shape, but was spun in the mold to smooth out the seams; a practice common around Can usually tell that lip is crude and was applied by hand. Bottom half from base to shoulder has no seams, then there is a seam near the shoulder that runs completely around the circumference of the bottle. From this shoulder seam are two side seams that run up the neck and end below the top of the lip.
The first ABM bottles started appearing in , and by most bottles were being made by this method. Base type for examples, click here: Top type for examples, see click here: If your bottle is embossed “Federal Law Prohibits